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an_etiological_study_of_lymphedema [2011/12/06 07:09]
Pat O'Connor [External Links]
an_etiological_study_of_lymphedema [2012/10/16 14:40] (current)
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 J Vasc Br 2004;​3(1):​60-4 J Vasc Br 2004;​3(1):​60-4
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 +======Lymphedema Etiology======
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 +Etiology
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 +Lymphedema results from the inability of the lymphatic system to transport lymph fluid. Approximately 80% of lymphatic drainage must be nonfunctional before lymphedema becomes clinically evident. [2] Abnormal lymph flow may result from lymphatic hypoplasia, obstruction,​ or fibrosis. Cancer treatment (especially breast cancer treatment), malignancy, nematode infection (filariasis),​ and trauma are responsible for >90% of cases worldwide. [2]
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 +Lymph node dissection, radiation therapy, or neoplastic infiltration can injure the lymphatic system (e.g., pelvic masses or node dissection can lead to lymphedema of the lower extremity or genitalia). [12] Parasitic nematodes, such as Wuchereria bancrofti and Brigia malayi, spread by a mosquito vector cause lymphatic filariasis by obstructing lymphatic channels directly or by regional inflammation. [5] As many as 120 million people in mosquito-plagued regions develop lymphedema as a result of nematode infection. [5] [6] Significant penetrating trauma, particularly to the axilla or groin, can cause damage to the lymphatic system with consequent lymphedema. In addition, curvilinear scars may retain lymph fluid, resulting in a raised, swollen area and scar lymphedema. [13]
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 +Primary lymphedema is likely to account for less than 1% patients with lymphedema and is usually due to hypoplastic lymphatic development. [2] [10] Most cases are sporadic; however, approximately 10% to 15% of patients have familial or syndromic lymphedema. [1] A causative mutation has been identified in some lymphedema-associated sydromes: Milroy disease (VEGFR3), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (FOXC2), hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia (SOX18), and Hennekam syndrome (CCBE1). [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]
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 +Autosomal-dominant inheritance is most common (e.g., Milroy disease, Meige disease, lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome), [2] [10] [19] but autosomal-recessive inheritance can also occur (e.g., hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia,​ Hennekam syndrome). [20] [17] Several other conditions (e.g., Noonan syndrome, Turner syndrome) also have an increased risk of primary lymphedema. [19] [21] 
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 +Remainder of article:
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 +[[https://​online.epocrates.com/​u/​2924610/​Lymphedema/​Basics/​Etiology|OnLine Epocrates]]
  
 ======External Links====== ======External Links======
an_etiological_study_of_lymphedema.txt ยท Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)