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glossary:flavonoids

Flavonoids:

(1) Herbal substance or drug used to assist in the treatment of various conditions including lymphedema. The main characteristics is that it stimulate microphage activity and claims to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Routinely used in numerous countries this group of drugs has not been approved by the FDA for lymphedema in the US. Benzopyrones, which include grape seed extract and coumarin are types of benzopyrones/flavonoids.

(2) Phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables, especially in the colorful skins. Flavonoids are be beneficial for your health because they may work as antioxidants in your body. Compounds widely distributed in nature as pigments in flowers, fruit, vegetables, and tree barks. Chemically they are glycosides of flavones; the sugar moiety may be either rhamnose or rhamnoglucose, and depending on the different reactive groups in the flavone may be flavonols, flavanones, flavonals, or isoflavones.

Some of the flavonoids have pharmacological actions, but they are not known to be dietary essentials, although claims have been made (they were at one time classified as vitamin P), and are sometimes called bioflavonoids. They may make a contribution to the total antioxidant intake, and some are phytoestrogens.

(3) A large category of natural plant products that derive from γ-pyrone. All flavonoid compounds, which are derived from either 2-phenylbenzopyrone (structure 1) or 3-phenylbenzopyrone (2), can be classified into 10 groups:

  • chalcones
  • flavanones
  • flavones
  • flavonols
  • anthocyanidins (flavylium cations)
  • flavan 3-ols (catechins),
  • flavan 3,4-diols (proanthocyanidins)
  • biflavonoids
  • oligomeric flavonoids
  • isoflavonoids
  • aurones

They differ in the oxidation level or substitution pattern of their heterocyclic ring (ring C).

More than 1300 different flavonoid compounds have been isolated from plants. Individual flavonoids in a group differ from each other by the number and position of the hydroxy, methoxy, and sugar substituents. As a rule, flavonoid compounds occur in plants as glycosides, with hexoses such as glucose, galactose, and rhamnose, and pentoses such as arabinose and xylose as the most commonly found sugars. The sugars can be attached singly or in combination with each other. Glycosylation renders these compounds water-soluble and permits their accumulation in the vacuoles of cells.

Also Known As: bioflavonoids

Isoflavonoids - are a class of compounds grouped together due to similar chemical structure. Isoflavonoids are found in red clover tops, alfalfa, and many other plants. The activity of these isoflavonoids produces estrogenic hormone-like effects.

glossary/flavonoids.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)