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glossary:glucose

(1) The simple sugar (monosaccharide) that serves as the chief source of energy in the body. Glucose is the principal sugar the body makes. The body makes glucose from proteins, fats and, in largest part, carbohydrates. Glucose is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. Cells, however, cannot use glucose without the help of insulin. Glucose is also known as dextrose.

Glucose may be consumed or given IV to increase the level of blood glucose when the level falls too low (hypoglycemia). In hypoglycemia, cells cannot function normally, and symptoms develop such as nervousness, cool skin, headache, confusion, convulsions or coma. Ingested glucose is absorbed directly into the blood from the intestine and results in a rapid increase in the blood glucose. IV glucose acts even more rapidly to relieve hypoglycemia.

(2) (Science: biochemistry) D glucose, a monosaccharide (hexose), C6H12O6, found in certain foods, especially fruits and in the normal blood of all animals. It is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the chief source of energy for living organisms, its utilisation being controlled by insulin.

excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for use as needed and, beyond that, is converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue. Glucose appears in the urine in diabetes mellitus.

Synonym: dextrose.

Origin: gr. Gleukos = sweetness, glykys = sweet a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy.Glucose is the compound that is used as a means of energy in both animals and plants, obtained by animals via foodstuff and produced in the calvin cycle by plants. Glucose has a chemical formula of C6H12O6 and can occur in two forms, alpha and beta.

glossary/glucose.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)