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glossary:infection

Infection

(1) Invasion by and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, virus, fungus in a bodily part or tissue, which may produce subsequent tissue injury and progress to overt disease through a variety of cellular or toxic mechanisms.

An instance of being infected. An agent or a contaminated substance responsible for one's becoming infected. The pathological state resulting from having been infected.

(2) Science: (microbiology) invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be clinically unapparent or result in local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen antibody response (immune response). The infection may remain localised, subclinical and temporary if the bodys defensive mechanisms are effective. A local infection may persist and spread by extension to become an acute, subacute or chronic clinical infection or disease state. A local infection may also become systemic when the microorganisms gain access to the lymphatic or vascular system.

(2a) An infectious disease. The pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms.(medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease. An incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted.The invasion of an organism by parasitic microorganism.

Airborne infection

One that is contracted by inhalation of microorganisms or spores suspended in air on water droplets or dust particles.

Acute infection

Short duration, of the order of several days.

Airborne infection

Infection by inhalation of organisms suspended in air on water droplets or dust particles.

Arrested infection

Restrained in its development by a capsule or adhesion but still containing infective material.

Chronic infection

Long duration, of the order of weeks or months.

Droplet infection

Infection due to inhalation of respiratory pathogens suspended on liquid particles exhaled by someone already infected (droplet nuclei).

Dustborne infection

Infection by inhalation of pathogens that have become affixed to particles of dust.

Endogenous infection

That due to reactivation of organisms present in a dormant focus, as occurs in tuberculosis, etc.

Exogenous infection

That caused by organisms not normally present in the body but which have gained entrance from the environment.

General infection

See systemic infection (below).

Infection, adenovirus

n A proliferation of the adenovirus that may cause any number of illnesses, including “swimming pool conjunctivitis” and gastrointestinal or respiratory diseases, among others; it is possible to be infected without manifesting any symptoms.

Infection, airborne

n an infection contracted by inhalation of microorganisms contained in air or water particles.

Infection control

n procedures and protocols designed to prevent or limit cross-contamination in the health care delivery environment.

Infection control, blood bank and blood transfusion

n.pl the precautions taken to ensure that blood-borne pathogens are not transmitted via donated blood; includes rejection of potential donors whose medical history shows evidence of viral hepatitis, drug addiction, or recent blood transfusions or tattoos, as well as laboratory testing of all donated blood for the presence of hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and the HIV-1 antibody.

Infection control, surveillance

n the monitoring of the transmission of a disease in order to limit its occurrence.

Infection, focal

n the process in which microorganisms located at a certain site, or focus, in the body are disseminated throughout the body to set up secondary sites, or foci, of infection in other tissues.

Infection, hemolytic streptococcal

n 1. an infection usually caused by Group A hemolytic streptococci(Streptococcus), Such infections include scarlet fever, streptococcal sore throat, cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. 2. an infection caused by streptococci that produce a toxic substance (hemolysin) that will lyse the erythrocytes and liberate hemoglobin from red blood cells.

Infection, inflammatory

n an influx or accumulation of inflammatory elements (cellular and exudative) in the interstices of the tissues as a result of tissue injury by physical, chemical, microbiologic, and other irritants. Cellular elements include lymphocytes, plasma cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and the macrophages of reticuloendothelial origin.

Infection, latent

n a lingering infection that may lie dormant in the body for a time but may become active under certain conditions.

Infection, local

n the prevention of excitation of the free nerve endings by literally flooding the immediate area with a local anesthetic solution.

Infection, nosocomial

n an infection that first occurs during a patient's stay at a health care facility, regardless of whether it is detected during the stay or after.

Infection, opportunistic

n an illness or condition that occurs when pathogens are able to exploit a vulnerable host. An infection that is able to take hold because resistance is low.

Infection, primary

n the original outbreak of an illness against which the body has had no opportunity to build antibodies; the originating infection.

Infection, recurrent

n a reoccurrence of the same illness from which an individual has previously recovered.

Infection, Vincent's

n.pr See gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative.

Infection, waterborne

n an illness that occurs as the result of drinking contaminated water or of eating fish that has been taken from contaminated waters.

Latent infection

The animal is infected but there are no clinical signs nor infectious agent detectable in discharges.

Local infection

Has a common syndrome of varying degree, depending on the site and acuteness of the lesion and the type of microorganisms present, including fever, toxemia and leukocytosis with a left shift. The specific individual signs relate to the location of the lesion and the pressure it exerts on nearby organs. See also abscess, cellulitis, phlegmon, osteomyelitis, omphalophlebitis, empyema, adenitis, metritis, mastitis, periphlebitis.

Masked infection

An infection is known to occur but the infectious agent cannot be demonstrated, e.g. the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus.

Mixed infection

Infection with more than one kind of organism at the same time.

Nosocomial infection

Pertaining to or acquired in hospital.

Opportunistic infection

Infection with organisms which are normally harmless but become pathogenic when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised.

Patent infection

One in which the infectious agent can be demonstrated in discharges of the patient.

Persistent infection

A characteristic of some viruses, particularly herpesviruses and lentiviruses, in which there may be long-lasting or life-long latent infections, with asymptomatic periods and recurring acute episodes of clinical disease (herpesviruses) or onset of severe clinical disease (lentiviruses).

Pyogenic infection

Infection by pus-producing organisms.

Secondary infection

Infection by a pathogen following an infection by a pathogen of another kind.

Infection stones

See struvite urolith.

Subclinical infection

Infection associated with no detectable signs but caused by microorganisms capable of producing easily recognizable diseases, such as mastitis or brucellosis; often detected by the production of antibody, or by delayed hypersensitivity exhibited in a skin test reaction to such antigens as tuberculoprotein.

Super infection

A second infection occurs in an animal which is already experiencing an infection with another agent.

Systemic infection

The infection is widespread throughout the body and must be assumed to be in all organs.

Terminal infection

An acute infection occurring near the end of a disease and often causing death.

Transmissible infection

An infection capable of being transmitted from one animal to another. Called also contagious

Tunnel infection

Subcutaneous infection of an artificial passage into the body that has been kept patent. opportunistic infection infection by an organism that does not ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain circumstances (e.g., impaired immune responses).

Waterborne infection

Infection by microorganisms transmitted in water.

Bacterial Infections

Cellulitis Infections

MRSA Information

Antibiotics

Resources: Answers.Com; Biology-Online; Medical Dictionary/the Free Dictionary; Med Terms.com; Mosby's Dental Dictionary

glossary/infection.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)