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glossary:necrosis

Necrosis

(1) The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ischemia (lack of blood flow). From the Greek “nekros” (dead body).

(2) /ne·cro·sis/ (ne-kro´sis) pl. necro´ses [Gr.] the morphological changes indicative of cell death caused by progressive enzymatic degradation; it may affect groups of cells or part of a structure or an organ.

Types of Necrosis

Aseptic necrosis

Condition in which poor blood supply to an area of bone leads to bone death. Also called avascular necrosis and osteonecrosis or Necrosis without infection, usually in the head of the femur after traumatic hip dislocation.

Avacular necrosis

The consequence of temporary or permanent cessation of blood flow to the bones. The absence of blood causes the bone tissue to die, resulting in fracture or collapse of the entire bone.

Balser's fatty necrosis

Gangrenous pancreatitis with omental bursitis and disseminated patches of necrosis of fatty tissues.

Caseous necrosis

Cheesy n. - necrosis in which the tissue is soft, dry and cheesy, occurring typically in tuberculosis.

Central necrosis

Necrosis affecting the central portion of an affected bone, cell, or lobule of the liver.

Cheesy necrosis

Necrosis in which the tissue is soft, dry, and cottage cheese–like; most often seen in tuberculosis and syphilis.

Coagulation necrosis

Necrosis of a portion of some organ or tissue, with formation of fibrous infarcts, the protoplasm of the cells becoming fixed and opaque by coagulation of the protein elements, the cellular outline persisting for a long time.

Colliquative necrosis

That in which the necrotic material becomes softened and liquefied.

Contraction band necrosis

A cardiac lesion characterized by hypercontracted myofibrils and contraction bands and mitochondrial damage, caused by calcium influx into dying cells resulting in arrest of the cells in the contracted state.

Exanthematous necrosis

An acute necrotizing process involving the gingivae, jawbones, and contiguous soft tissues. It is of unknown cause, primarily affects children, and resembles noma. It differs from noma, however, in that it has a slight odor, tendency for self-limitation, low mortality rate, and normal leukocyte count

Fat necrosis

That in which the neutral fats in adipose tissue are split into fatty acids and glycerol, usually affecting the pancreas and peripancreatic fat in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.

Gingival necrosis

n death and degeneration of the cells and other structural elements of the gingivae (e.g., necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis).

Interdental necrosis

A progressive disease that destroys the tissue of the papillae and creates interdental craters. Advanced interdental necrosis leads to a loss of periodontal attachment.

Ischemic necrosis

Death and disintegration of a tissue resulting from interference with its blood supply, thus depriving the tissues of access to substances necessary for metabolic sustenance. It may occur in the periodontal ligament as a result of occlusal trauma.

Liquefaction necrosis

(colliquative n.) that in which the necrotic material becomes softened and liquefied.

Moist necrosis

Necrosis in which the dead tissue is wet and soft.

Necrosis of epithelial attachment

The death of cells composing the epithelial attachment. In a specific periodontitis produced by organisms similar to Actinomyces, necrosis of the epithelial attachment may exist, permitting a rapid apical shift of the base of the pocket.

Periodontal ligament

Necrosis of a portion of the periodontal ligament, usually resulting from traumatic injury (e.g., in occlusal traumatism). Much of this necrotic change is the result of ischemia.

Phosphorus necrosis

Necrosis of the jaw bone due to exposure to phosphorus.

Postpartum pituitary necrosis

Necrosis of the pituitary during the postpartum period, often associated with shock and excessive uterine bleeding during delivery, and leading to variable patterns of hypopituitarism.

Radiation necrosis

The death of tissue caused by radiation.

Subcutaneous fat necrosis

Induration of the subcutaneous fat in newborn and young infants.

Ustilagi´nea Necrosis

Dry gangrene due to ergotism.

Zenker's necrosis

(degeneration.) hyaline degeneration and necrosis of striated muscle.

glossary/necrosis.txt · Last modified: 2012/10/16 14:40 (external edit)